LIVE LOADS IN A BUILDING

While the dead load is a permanent load on the structure,   live load  is defined as the load whose magnitude and placement change with time. Such loads are due to the weights of people (animals, if the building houses animals), furniture, movable equipment, and stored materials. As shown in  Figure 3.1   , live loads are further divided into

• Floor live load
• Roof live load


Floor live load depends on the occupancy and the use of the building. Therefore, it is also called the   occupancy load,  and it is different for different occupancies. For instance, the floor live load for a library stack room is higher than the floor live load for a library reading room, which in turn is higher than the floor live load for an apartment building.

Floor live loads are determined by aggregating the loads of all people, furniture, and movable equipment that may result from the particular occupancy. Safety considerations require that the worst expected situation be considered so that the structure is designed for the maximum possible live load that may be placed on it.

Based on a large number of surveys, floor live loads for various commonly encountered occupancies, such as individual dwellings, hotels, apartment buildings, libraries, office buildings, and industrial structures, have been determined and are contained in building code tables. Table 3.1 gives floor live loads for a few representative occupancies. For instance, the floor live load for a library stack room is 150 psf, for a library reading room is 60 psf, and for an apartment building is 40 psf. Note that these are the minimum floor live loads for which the building must be designed. Even if the actual live load on a floor is smaller, the building must be designed for the minimum live load specified by the building code.

The floor live load values in Table 3.1 are conservative. In most situations, the actual loads are smaller than those given. However, the architect or the engineer must recognize unusual situations that may lead to a greater actual load than the one specified in the code. In such situations, the higher anticipated load should be used.  

Additionally, if the live load for an occupancy not included in building code tables is to be obtained, the architect or the structural engineer must determine it from first principles, taking into account all the loads that may be expected on the structure. Most building codes require that such live load values be approved by the building official.
MINIMUM FLOOR LIVE LOADS FOR  SELECTED OCCUPANCIES

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