An experienced carpenter can frame a simple building from the most minimal drawings, but the framing for a  larger or custom-designed structure may need to be planned as carefully as for a steel- or concrete-framed building (Figure 5.16). The architect or engineer determines an effcient layout and the appropriate sizes for joists and rafters, and communicates this information to the carpenters by means of  framing plans (Figures 5.17 and 5.51). For most purposes, member sizes can be determined using standardized structural tables that are part of residential building codes, or, for more complex framing or special conditions, custom engineering may be required. Larger-scale  section details, similar to those seen throughout this chapter, are prepared for major connections in the building system. The architectural floor plans serve to indicate the locations and dimensions of walls, partitions, and openings, and the exterior elevations show the outside faces of the building, with vertical dimensions or elevations indicated as required. For most buildings,  building sections are also drawn that cut completely through the building, showing the dimensional relation- ships of the various floor levels and roof planes and the slopes of the roof surfaces.  Interior elevations are often prepared for kitchens, bathrooms, and other rooms with elaborate interior features.

Figure 5.16 A floor plan and building section are
two important components of the
construction drawings for a simple
house with wood light framing. The
ground floor is a concrete slab on grade.

Figure 5.17
A framing plan for the ground-floor platform
of the building
Figure 5.51

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