A heavy timber frame building with an exterior masonry or concrete bearing  wall is normally braced against wind and seismic forces by the shear resistance of its exterior walls, working  together with the diaphragm action of its roof and floor decks. In areas of high seismic risk, the walls must be  heavily reinforced both vertically and horizontally, and the decks may have to be specially nailed or overlaid with plywood to increase their shear resistance, as well as specially anchored  to the perimeter walls. In buildings with framed exterior walls, diagonal bracing or shear panels must be provided. Seismic upgrades to historic  heavy timber and masonry buildings often require the insertion of new steel-braced frames or reinforced  concrete shear walls in order to meet contemporary lateral force resistance requirements.

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