Construction Project Delivery Methods.

In conventional design/bid/build project delivery (Figure 1.8), the owner first hires a team of architects and
engineers to perform design services, leading to the creation of drawings and technical specifi cations, referred to collectively as the construction documents, that comprehensively describe the facility to be built. Next, construction firms are invited to bid on the project. Each bidding firm  reviews the construction documents and proposes a cost to construct the facility.

The owner evaluates the submitted proposals and awards the construction contract to the bidder deemed most suitable. This selection may be based on bid price alone, or other factors related to bidders’ qualifications may also be considered. The construction documents then become part of the construction contract, and the selected firm proceeds with the work. On all but small projects, this firm acts as the  general contractor, coordinating and overseeing the overall construction process but frequently relying on smaller, more specialized subcontractors to perform significant portions or even all of the construction work.

In design/bid/build project delivery,  the owner contracts separately with the architect/engineer (A/E) design team  and the construction general contrac- tor (GC). In a design/build project, the  owner contracts with a single organizational entity that provides both design  and construction services.
Figure 1.8 In design/bid/build project delivery,  the owner contracts separately with the
architect/engineer (A/E) design team  and the construction general contrac-
tor (GC). In a design/build project, the  owner contracts with a single organiza-
tional entity that provides both design  and construction services.
During construction, the design team continues to provide services to the owner, helping to ensure that the facility is built according to the requirements of the documents as well as answering questions related to the design, changes to the work, payments to the contractor, and similar matters. Among the advantages of design/bid/build project delivery are its easy-to-understand organizational structure, well-established legal prec-edents, and ease of management. The direct relationship between the owner and the design team ensures that the owner retains control over the design and provides a healthy set of checks and balances during the construction process. Also, with design work completed before the project is bid, the owner starts construction with a fixed construction cost and a high degree of confidence regarding the final costs of the project.

In design/bid/build project delivery, the owner contracts with two entities, and design and construc-
tion responsibilities remain divided between these two throughout the project. In  design/build project de-
livery, one entity ultimately assumes responsibility for both design and construction (Figure 1.8). A design/
build project begins with the owner developing a conceptual design or program that describes the functional or performance requirements of the proposed facility but does not detail its form or how it is to beconstructed.

Next, using this conceptual information, a design/build organization is selected to complete all remaining as-
pects of the project. Selection of the designer/builder may be based on a competitive bid process similar to that described above for design/bid/build projects, on negotiation and evaluation of an organization’s qualifi  cations for the proposed work, or on some combination of both. Design/build organizations themselves can
take a variety of forms: a single fi rm encompassing both design and construction expertise, a construction management fi rm that subcontracts with a separate design fi rm to provide those services, or a joint venture between two fi rms, one specializing in construction and the other in design.

Regardless of the internal structure of the design/build organization, the owner contracts with this single entity throughout the remainder of the project, which assumes responsibility for all remaining design and construction services. Design/build project delivery gives the owner a single source of accountability for all aspects of the project. It also places the designers and constructors in a collaborative relationship, introducing construction expertise into the design phases of a project and allowing the earliest possible consideration of constructability, cost control, construction scheduling, and similar matters. This delivery method also readily accommodates fast track construction, a scheduling technique for reducing construction time that is described below.

Other delivery methods are possible: An owner may contract separately with a design team and a construction manager. As in design/build construction, the construction manager participates in the project prior to the onset of construction, introducing construction expertise during the design stage. Construction management project delivery can take a variety of forms and is frequently associated with especially large or complex projects (Figure 1.9). In  turnkey construction, an owner contracts with a single entity that provides not only design and construction services, but financing for the project as well. Or design and construction can be undertaken by a  single-purpose entity, of which the owner, architect, and con-tractor are all joint members. Aspects of these and other project delivery methods can also be intermixed, allowing many possible organizational schemes for the delivery of design and construction services that are suitable to a variety of owner requirements and project circumstances.

 In its traditional role, a construction manager (CM) at fee provides project  management services to the owner and assists the owner in contracting directly  for construction services with one or more construction entities. A CM at fee  is not directly responsible for the construction work itself. A CM at risk acts  more like a general contractor and takes on greater responsibility for construction  quality, schedule, and costs. In either case, the A/E design team also contracts  separately with the owner
Figure 1.9  In its traditional role, a construction
manager (CM) at fee provides project  management services to the owner and
assists the owner in contracting directly  for construction services with one or
more construction entities. A CM at fee  is not directly responsible for the con-
struction work itself. A CM at risk acts  more like a general contractor and takes
on greater responsibility for construction  quality, schedule, and costs. In either
case, the A/E design team also contracts  separately with the owner.

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