Holding-down bolts - Steel Structures.

The most generally used holding-down bolts are of grade 4.6 although 8.8 grade are also available (see Table 27.3). They are usually supplied : square head, square shoulder, round shank, hexagon nut. Each bolt must be provided with an anchor washer (square hole to match the shoulder) or an appropriate anchor frame to embed in the concrete in circumstances of high uplift forces. In such cases the anchor frame may be composed of angles or channels. Typical frames are shown in Fig. 27.15.When long anchors are required a rod threaded at both ends may be used, and in exceptional circumstances when prestressing is required a high tensile rod (usually Macalloy bar) is adopted. In both these cases provision should be made to prevent rotation of the rod during tightening which may result in the embedded nut being slackened.
Holding-down bolts; tension capacity per pair of bolts

Corrosion of holding-down bolts to a significant extent has been reported in some instances.This usually occurs between the level of the concrete block and the under- side of the steel baseplate, in aggressive chemical environments or at sites where moisture ingress to this level is recurrent. Fine concrete grout, well mixed, well placed and well compacted will provide the best protection against corrosion, but in cases where this is not adequate for the prevailing conditions, an allowance may be made in the sizing of the bolts or by specifying a higher grade bolt which  provides a larger factor of safety against tensile failure in the event that some corrosion does occur.

Typical anchorages for holding-down bolts
Fig. 27.15 Typical anchorages for holding-down bolts

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