FOUNDATION EXCAVATION AND CONSTRUCTION.

Introduction
There are many different types of excavations performed during the construction of a project. For example, soil may be excavated from the cut or borrow area and then used as fill (Chap. 15). Another example is the excavation of a shear key or buttress that will be used to stabilize a slope or landslide.

Other examples are excavations for the construction of foundations, which will be discussed in this part. An important aspect of the excavation may be groundwater control, which will be discussed later.

1  Shallow Footing Excavations   A shallow foundation is often selected when the structural load will not cause excessive settlement or lateral movement of the underlying soil layers. Shallow foundations are also...

2  Open and Braced Excavations   An open excavation is defined as an excavation that has stable and unsupported side slopes. Table 16.1 presents a discussion of the general factors that control the excavation...

3  Groundwater Control   Groundwater and seepage, including the lowering of the groundwater table by pumping from wells, has been discussed previously. Groundwater can cause or contribute to...

4  Pier and Grade Beam Support   The previous sections have described shallow foundation excavation and construction, foundation construction in open and braced excavations, and groundwater control. The next ...

5  Prestressed Concrete Piles   Common types of prestressed concrete piles are shown in "FIGURE 5.5 Typical prestressed concrete piles; dimensions in millimeters."  Prestressed piles are typically produced at a...

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