Anatomy of Steel Structure.

A typical single-storey building consisting of cladding, secondary steel and a frame structure is shown in Fig. 1.2.

1 Cladding   Cladding is required to be weathertight, to provide insulation, to have penetrations for daylight and access, to be aesthetically pleasing, and to last the maximum time with a minimum of maintenance consistent with the budget. The requirements for the...

2 Secondary elements  In the normal single-storey building the cladding is supported  on secondary members which transmit the loads back to main structural steel frames.The spacing of the frames, determined by the overall economy of the building, is normally in the...

3 Primary frames   The frame supports the cladding but, with increasing architectural and service demands, other factors are important. The basic structural form has developed against the background of achieving the lowest cost envelope by...

4 Resistance to sway forces   Most of the common forms provide resistance to sidesway forces in the plane of the frame. It is essential also to provide resistance to out-of-plane forces; these are usually transmitted to the foundations with a combination of...

Structural form for portal-frame building (some rafter bracing omitted for clarity)
Fig. 1.2 Structural form for portal-frame building (some rafter bracing omitted for clarity)

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